Web Design

Unusual characters like mathematical symbols, meaurment units, and other symbols are referenced for use on web pages . This collection of symbols is only a short list of the many possibilities in unicode. Unfortunately, there is no way to be certain everybody viewing your web pages will be able to see these symbols. However, I only list those that are nearly universal. Anybody who can read this page can see the unusual character with unicodes below 256 because ASCII codes are part of Unicodes. The others characters listed seem to be standard on most web-browsers for most operating systems. Unicode is a way of representing all sorts of characters from nearly any language including asian languages, mathematics, and braille. Following the charts are examples that show you how to write your HTML to make these characters appear.

Unicodes & ASCII codes
for symbols on web pages

Mathematics: Relations, Operations, & Operators

Symbol DescriptionSymbolHTML
much less than««
less than or equal to≤
almost equal to≈
proportional relation∝
not equal to≠
greater than or equal to≥
much greater than»»
division operation÷÷
radical (root)√
general product∏

Mathematics: Formal Logic & Set Theory

Symbol DescriptionSymbolHTML
hard not¬¬
biconditional connective↔
and connective∧
or connective∨
meta biconditional connective⇔
universal quantifier∀
existential quantifier∃
empty set∅
element of∈
proper subset⊂

Mathematics: Calculus, Geometry, & More

Symbol DescriptionSymbolHTML
change (delta)∆
partial derivative∂
degree sign°°
plus or minus±±
real numbersℜ
trans-finite numbers (aleph)ℵ

Monetary, Business, & Measurments

Symbol DescriptionSymbolHTML
cent sign¢¢
pound sign££
yen sign¥¥
copyright sign©©
registered sign®®

Drawing, Organizing, & Formatting

Symbol DescriptionSymbolHTML
en dash–
em dash—
non-breaking space  
vertical line||
circle bullet•
little circle··
left arrow←
up arrow↑
right arrow→
down arrow↓
lower left corner┗

Punctuation, Grammatical, & Notational Symbols

Symbol DescriptionSymbolHTML
inverted exclamation point¡¡
inverted question mark¿¿
double dagger‡
section sign§§
Mac OS Command Key⌘

Examples of Using Unicode in Web-Pages

To use the above charts, write in your HTML file what appears in the "HTML" column. In a web-browser it will appear like what is in the "symbol" column. Below are some examples.

What to write in your HTML fileWhat appears on the Web Page
carrots, milk, sugar, …carrots, milk, sugar, …
the shortcut to print is ⌘pthe shortcut to print is ⌘p