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Unusual characters like mathematical symbols, meaurment units, and other symbols are referenced for use on web pages . This collection of symbols is only a short list of the many possibilities in unicode. Unfortunately, there is no way to be certain everybody viewing your web pages will be able to see these symbols. However, I only list those that are nearly universal. Anybody who can read this page can see the unusual character with unicodes below 256 because ASCII codes are part of Unicodes. The others characters listed seem to be standard on most web-browsers for most operating systems. Unicode is a way of representing all sorts of characters from nearly any language including asian languages, mathematics, and braille. Following the charts are examples that show you how to write your HTML to make these characters appear.

for symbols on web pages

Symbol Description | Symbol | HTML |

much less than | « | « |

less than or equal to | ≤ | ≤ |

almost equal to | ≈ | ≈ |

proportional relation | ∝ | ∝ |

not equal to | ≠ | ≠ |

greater than or equal to | ≥ | ≥ |

much greater than | » | » |

division operation | ÷ | ÷ |

radical (root) | √ | √ |

general product | ∏ | ∏ |

summation | ∑ | ∑ |

Symbol Description | Symbol | HTML |

hard not | ¬ | ¬ |

biconditional connective | ↔ | ↔ |

and connective | ∧ | ∧ |

or connective | ∨ | ∨ |

meta biconditional connective | ⇔ | ⇔ |

universal quantifier | ∀ | ∀ |

existential quantifier | ∃ | ∃ |

therefore | ∴ | ∴ |

empty set | ∅ | ∅ |

element of | ∈ | ∈ |

intersection | ∩ | ∩ |

union | ∪ | ∪ |

proper subset | ⊂ | ⊂ |

Symbol Description | Symbol | HTML |

change (delta) | ∆ | ∆ |

integral | ∫ | ∫ |

partial derivative | ∂ | ∂ |

angle | ∠ | ∠ |

perpendicular | ⊥ | ⊥ |

degree sign | ° | ° |

plus or minus | ± | ± |

real numbers | ℜ | ℜ |

trans-finite numbers (aleph) | ℵ | ℵ |

Symbol Description | Symbol | HTML |

cent sign | ¢ | ¢ |

euro | € | € |

pound sign | £ | £ |

yen sign | ¥ | ¥ |

copyright sign | © | © |

registered sign | ® | ® |

trademark | ™ | ™ |

Symbol Description | Symbol | HTML |

en dash | – | – |

em dash | — | — |

non-breaking space |   | |

vertical line | | | | |

circle bullet | • | • |

little circle | · | · |

shading | ▒ | ▒ |

left arrow | ← | ← |

up arrow | ↑ | ↑ |

right arrow | → | → |

down arrow | ↓ | ↓ |

lower left corner | ┗ | ┗ |

Symbol Description | Symbol | HTML |

ellipsis | … | … |

inverted exclamation point | ¡ | ¡ |

inverted question mark | ¿ | ¿ |

dagger | † | † |

double dagger | ‡ | ‡ |

section sign | § | § |

Mac OS Command Key | ⌘ | ⌘ |

To use the above charts, write in your HTML file what appears in the "HTML" column. In a web-browser it will appear like what is in the "symbol" column. Below are some examples.

What to write in your HTML file | What appears on the Web Page |

carrots, milk, sugar, … | carrots, milk, sugar, … |

the shortcut to print is ⌘p | the shortcut to print is ⌘p |

∃x(x÷2≤x) | ∃x(x÷2≤x) |

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K. H. Grobman | k h g @ d e v p s y . o r g | © 2003 - 2008 |